open access publication

Review, 2024

A comprehensive review on wind power spillage: Reasons, minimization techniques, real applications, challenges, and future trends

Electric Power Systems Research, ISSN 0378-7796, Volume 226, 10.1016/j.epsr.2023.109915


Eladl A.A. 0000-0002-0907-209X (Corresponding author) Fawzy S. Abd-Raboh E.E. Elmitwally A. Tinajero G.D.A. 0000-0001-7450-8809 [1] Guerrero J.M. 0000-0002-5505-3252 [1] Hassan M.A. [2]


  1. [1] Aalborg University
  2. [NORA names: AAU Aalborg University; University; Denmark; Europe, EU; Nordic; OECD];
  3. [2] King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
  4. [NORA names: Saudi Arabia; Asia, Middle East]


Most countries tend to largely exploit renewable energy resources for economic and environmental reasons. In modern electrical networks, wind penetration has been tremendously increased. This phenomenon has triggered an accelerating advance in wind technology with huge industry investments. Nowadays, increasing wind penetration without endangering power system reliability and security becomes a serious issue. Due to the significant uncertainty and variation of wind power generation (WPG), increasing wind penetration levels leads to frequency variation, voltage instability, and exceeding the transmission capacity limitations. To override the aforementioned problems, it becomes crucial either to “spill” wind or add a new dispatchable generation and/or storage systems. Performing a new dispatch provides an additional regulation and load following services. Recently, a significant amount of wind power spillage (WPS) exists in practice especially with high penetration level of WPG. Actually, WPS signifies the amount of the unused WPG because of technical problems such as grid congestion and lack of spinning reserve as well as during lower demand periods. WPS greatly lower the capacity factor of the wind power plant and lower its value. Over the last decade, possible mitigation strategies to solve the WPS problem have been tackled and conducted. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of the WPS problem and state-of-the-art solutions to minimize WPS without compromising the power system's stability and secure operation. Additionally, the real applications, challenges, and future trends in the WPS research area are explored.


Curtailment, Demand response, FACTS, Storage, Thermal line rating, Wind power spillage


  • King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
  • Interdisciplinary Research Center for Renewable Energy and Power Systems
  • Research Institute

Data Provider: Elsevier